The last 100 years have seen a significant transformation in the way we understand teaching and learning. This chapter documents that change. We now understand that learning is neither merely the passive reception of new information nor that it need not be limited to formal classrooms and educational institutions. Now technologies have enabled the development of open and distributed learning, with access enabled for all, and with materials licensed and shared freely. This, in turn, has led to new ways of looking at pedagogy, as typified by trends in social learning, personal learning, and the massive open online course.